Knowing who makes up the market the product or service plays in is crucial, yet the importance of this aspect is often overlooked. Market segmentation involves assessing the whole population that could be potential customers of your product and then segmenting them based on varying criteria. Some examples of aspects to filter for are purchase behavior, psychographics, age, average income, and more.
Before you hire a marketing strategist, it’s important to ask about their years of experience, bachelor's degree and past clients, and to see examples of their previous work. You should also establish what kinds of services they can provide for you, and the cost and likely duration of any marketing tasks they do. Make sure that the market strategist you hire is an expert in digital marketing. Finally, check how he will report on your campaigns so you can measure success.
Take advantage of affiliate program freebies when available. Many affiliate programs provide free printables, guides, webinars or other lead magnets designed to get potential customers in their sales funnel. As an affiliate, you can share these freebies with your audience using your affiliate link so if they eventually make a purchase, you’ll earn a commission, but if they don’t they still get value upfront.

Standard to any business or marketing plan is the SWOT analysis. The SWOT analysis should help you clearly define your strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats so that you can develop goals and objectives that are on point and tied to your overall mission. The SWOT analysis will also enable you to understand what differentiates you from your competition and how you should position yourself in the market. It will also help in developing your messaging and your unique selling proposition. Brutal honesty is imperative to a truly insightful SWOT. Use bullets and aim for 4–5 in each section. Limiting your lists will help you to focus on the most critical points and help retain focus.
Remember that benefits can be intangible as well as tangible; for instance, if you're selling a cleaning product, your customers will benefit by having a cleaner house, but they may also benefit by enjoying better health. Brainstorm as many benefits as possible to begin with and then choose to emphasize the benefits that your targeted customers will most appreciate in your marketing plan.
However, if you're like the hundreds of millions of other individuals that are looking to become the next David Sharpe, there are some steps that you need to take. In my call with this renowned online marketer, I dove deep the a conversation that was submerged in the field of internet marketing, and worked to really understand what it takes to be top earner. We're not just talking about making a few hundred or thousand dollars to squeak by here; we're talking about building an automated cash machine. It's not easy by any means.
Also known as a publisher, the affiliate can be either an individual or a company that markets the seller’s product in an appealing way to potential consumers. In other words, the affiliate promotes the product to persuade consumers that it is valuable or beneficial to them and convince them to purchase the product. If the consumer does end up buying the product, the affiliate receives a portion of the revenue made.
As this article aims to cover affiliate marketing for beginners, here’s a little example for you. So, let’s assume John is an affiliate. He has a website which is all about skateboarding. On it, he has a blog where he shares videos of his latest stunts, pictures of the parks he’s visited, and in-depth reviews of the best and worst skateboards he’s ever used.
Social media marketing is that which uses social media platforms such as Twitter, Facebook, YouTube, and LinkedIn. These are collective groups of web properties that are published primarily by users for the purposes of building online communities. They can be used to generate publicity for social marketing campaigns, but that is not their primary purpose.
In addition to materials, the team has to pick the right medium. Some social marketing campaigns work best as videos, television, or radio commercials. If a campaign relies heavily on an image, like a photograph, it may be effective as a billboard or print advertisement. Brochures or newsletters sent to mailing lists, either printed or digital, are another choice. Social marketing campaigns can also be promoted through live events like benefit concerts, banquets, or galas.
Online marketing, also called digital marketing, is the process of using the web and internet-connected services to promote your business and website. There are a number of disciplines within online marketing. Some of these include social media, search engine marketing (SEM), search engine optimization (SEO), email marketing, online advertising and mobile advertising.
Think of this section as your opportunity to provide a general overview of your current business operations, as well as your internal and external environment. How long have you been up and running? What’s your business structure? Are you an LLC or a partnership? Do you conduct business online or through a storefront? What sorts of products and services do you offer?
Social marketing is not a science, but rather a professional craft which relies on multiple scientific disciplines to create programs designed to influence human behavior on a large scale. Commercial marketing targets purchase behaviors, product choice behaviors, and product promotion behaviors. People are asked to buy products, switch brands, and talk favorably about a company's product. Social marketing typically targets complex, often socially controversial behaviors, with delayed and distant benefits to audiences who often do not recognize they have a problem, much less are looking for a solution. Like other professional crafts (that is, clinical medicine) marketing uses science extensively, but it is also learned through experience. It is a flexible framework within which scientists, managers, and artists work together to influence behavior on a massive scale.

Social Marketing combines the best elements of the traditional approaches to social change in an integrated planning and action framework, and utilizes advances in communication technology and marketing skills. It uses marketing techniques to generate discussion and promote information, attitudes, values and behaviours. By doing so, it helps to create a climate conducive to social and behavioral change.
In a direct distribution channel, the product or service goes directly from the manufacturer to the consumer. In a one stage distribution channel, it goes from manufacturer to retailer to consumer. The traditional distribution channel is from manufacturer to wholesaler to retailer to consumer. Outline all the different companies, people and/or technologies that will be involved in the process of getting your product or service to your customer.
Having tactical plans and calendars gives life to your ideas and strategy. Try focusing on 4 or 5 main tactics for the year and create execution plans around these tactics. Keep in mind that your tactics may or may not be the same as your goals. If your goals are high-level, i.e. to increase traffic by 50%, then your tactic would drill down more on how to get that result — and be as the name implies, more tactical.
Speaking of what they termed "social change campaigns", Kotler and Ned Roberto introduced the subject by writing, "A social change campaign is an organized effort conducted by one group (the change agent) which attempts to persuade others (the target adopters) to accept, modify, or abandon certain ideas, attitudes, practices or behavior." Their 1989 text was updated in 2002 by Philip Kotler, Ned Roberto and Nancy Lee.[33] In 2005, University of Stirling was the first university to open a dedicated research institute to Social Marketing,[34] while in 2007, Middlesex University became the first university to offer a specialized postgraduate programme in Health & Social Marketing.[35]
If the above locations do not yield information pertaining to affiliates, it may be the case that there exists a non-public affiliate program. Utilizing one of the common website correlation methods may provide clues about the affiliate network. The most definitive method for finding this information is to contact the website owner directly if a contact method can be located.
Callidus provides a broad selection of tools and four levels of service that can meet a wide range of marketing needs for your business. It all starts with a basic bundle providing marketing automation and enablement, and builds to the company's Sales Performance bundle, which helps to ensure that your sales reps are properly motivated through their compensation plans. There's even an incentive for customers through the company's "Badgeville" feature, which offers rewards and gamification for customers.

You may be a sales genius and love selling and creating advertising pieces. Though, no matter how good you are, there are many channels and factors to master in this area of business alone. It’s hard to be a true master on top of all these trends and best practices, and run the business and raise funds well too. Your time may be best spent on other higher level tasks. Even in the beginning your time will be better spent simply closing hot leads than on marketing material.
Some good tips. I fully agree that it’s all about trust and it is always good to recommend an affiliate product that you have actually used. Why risk your reputation on a product you don’t know if it’s any good or not? If people buy one dodgy product from your site, they will probably never make that mistake again. That it why my blog strongly advocates ethical affiliate marketing. It’s the best long term stragey for affiliate marketing success.
Customer relationship management is a key factor in maintaining loyalty after a company has achieved a sustainable number of customers. There are numerous software and solutions on the market to handle CRM for a company. For small businesses, however, keeping such activities in-house may be recommended to keep the company lean. Things such as offering warranties and return policies can help keep customers satisfied and let them know that the company cares about their use of your product post-purchase.
A successful digital strategy is one that helps your business reach its core audience and achieve its goals. To put one in place, it’s essential to know who your target customers are, which search engines and digital channels they use, and what they need. That will help you deliver the right marketing content to the right people at the right time. A successful digital marketing strategy also has measurable goals, such as getting more traffic, boosting conversions, and increasing sales.
The problem with affiliate marketing, like many other home business options, are the so-called gurus and get-rich-quick programs that suggest affiliate marketing can be done fast and with little effort. Odds are you've read claims of affiliate marketing programs that say you can make hundreds of thousands of dollars a month doing almost nothing ("Three clicks to rich!"). Or, they suggest you can set up your affiliate site, and then forget it, except to check your bank deposits.
Education occurs most often in "real life" by becoming involved and learning the details as time progresses. Although there are several books on the topic, some so-called "how-to" or "silver bullet" books instruct readers to manipulate holes in the Google algorithm, which can quickly become out of date,[41] or suggest strategies no longer endorsed or permitted by advertisers.[42]
Native on-platform analytics, including Facebook’s Insights, Twitter’s Analytics, and Instagram’s Insights. These platforms can help you evaluate your on-platform metrics such as likes, shares, retweets, comments, and direct messages. With this information, you can evaluate the effectiveness of your community-building efforts and your audience’s interest in your content.

Smokey Bear and his admonition, "Only you can prevent forest fires," when seen alone on T.V., are again just an advertisement. But taken in context of all of the work done by the U.S. Forestry Service, the result that emerges is a social marketing campaign. Smokey is trying to change a particular behavior (being careless with fire); his message is targeted at a specific audience (six to ten year olds), and information he provides (on commercials, on the Internet and elsewhere) overcomes two major barriers to children being careful with fire: ignorance and also the scientific, "it's no fun" barrier. Further, the message is supported with information provided to parents at the campsites, making it more likely they will provide reinforcement to the message. That's social marketing. It uses targeted marketing, reinforcement, and it reduces barriers--three key elements missing from the two examples above.
Firms that are successful in marketing invariably start with a marketing plan. Large companies have plans with hundreds of pages; small companies can get by with a half-dozen sheets. Put your marketing plan in a three-ring binder. Refer to it at least quarterly, but better yet monthly. Leave a tab for putting in monthly reports on sales/manufacturing; this will allow you to track performance as you follow the plan.
Google's core algorithms and its propensity to shroud its data in layers of obscurity is not something new. However, it is critical to any understanding of marketing on the internet simply because this visibility is at the heart of everything else that you do. Forget about social media and other forms of marketing for the time being. Search engine optimization (SEO) offers up the proverbial key to near-limitless amounts of traffic on the web.

8. Behaviors are different—marketing adjusts to the differences. Some behaviors are simple: place an infant on its back to sleep in order to prevent SIDS. Some behaviors are natural but under strong external attack: breastfeed an infant for a full six months. Some behaviors are politically sensitive (needle exchange to prevent HIV transmission, abortion, sex education in school). Some behaviors are supported by strong enforcement policies (seat belt use, drunk driving, hand gun use). Others are complex and require new skills, such as the management of infant diarrhea in an African village. Some behaviors are well understood, while others are novel and seem curious. Some behaviors have naturally occurring rewards, while others have delayed rewards, or no rewards that an audience cares about. Each of these factors and more are critical points in understanding which marketing strategy is needed (fig 2​2).

When we talk about marketing on the internet, we're talking about driving traffic or boosting visibility via a number of means. Any type of advertising done on the internet to promote any product, person, service, business or place for that matter, can be deemed as online marketing. However, to succeed in this arena, whether it's SEO, social media, email marketing or beyond, you need to ensure you adhere to the three pillars of trust first and foremost.
When you are trying to change the behavior of a large number of people. If the number of people who you are trying to reach is small enough that they can be spoken with individually, or in a group, the time is probably not ripe for social marketing. For example, if you are interested in asking students at Pleasant Valley High School to volunteer at the upcoming spring fair, you might speak to them at an assembly, or visit individual classrooms. Development of a social marketing plan is more than is necessary. If, however, you want to increase volunteerism among everyone who lives in Pleasant Valley, a social marketing plan might be just what's called for.
Social marketing seeks to develop and integrate marketing concepts with other approaches to social change. Social marketing aims to influence behaviors that benefit individuals and communities for the greater social good. The goal is to deliver competition-sensitive and segmented social change programs that are effective, efficient, equitable and sustainable.[3]
Prevent backsliding. Often, the recipient's action must be followed by reinforcement, by the provision of some benefit for having acted, so that the desired action will be repeated. How is her life better in a meaningful way for having fewer children? Will her friends and family improve? Will she have more money? Can she go to school? Is she healthier than her neighbors?
With that understanding of marketing in mind, let's turn now to the focal point of an effective campaign--the consumer. People will have different ideas and beliefs at different times. For example, among smokers, some may not believe smoking is that bad for them, others might understand the risks but not care, still others may not want to take the effort to stop smoking, and a final group of smokers may be actively trying to quit. A social marketing campaign will see all of these beliefs (and their related actions) as part of a continuum, and try to move people along to the next step.
In developing a consensus definition of Social Marketing iSMA, ESMA and AASMworking group acknowledged the dynamic and contested nature of elements of Social Marketing theory and practice as a strength and manifestation of the sophisticated nature of the Social Marketing field. In developing a consensus definition the intention was not to close down the helpful and inevitable on-going debate about the nature and focus of Social Marketing. The aim was to help build a common narrative that could be used by the supporting associations to promote Social Marketing as a valuable core component of social programmes aimed at improving the human condition.  
Knowing who makes up the market the product or service plays in is crucial, yet the importance of this aspect is often overlooked. Market segmentation involves assessing the whole population that could be potential customers of your product and then segmenting them based on varying criteria. Some examples of aspects to filter for are purchase behavior, psychographics, age, average income, and more.
There is serious competition in the affiliate marketing sphere. You’ll want to make sure you stay on top of any new trends to ensure you remain competitive. Additionally, you’ll likely be able to benefit from at least a few of the new marketing techniques that are constantly being created. Be sure you’re keeping up to date on all these new strategies to guarantee that your conversion rates, and therefore revenue, will be as high as possible.
The goal of a public relations specialist is to generate positive publicity, usually through social marketing campaigns and strategies. Some of these specialists are directly employed by government agencies, public service companies, nonprofit organizations, or large commercial companies. Others work on a freelance basis, either as individuals or for marketing agencies that specialize in social marketing.

Display advertising - As the term infers, Online Display Advertisement deals with showcasing promotional messages or ideas to the consumer on the internet. This includes a wide range of advertisements like advertising blogs, networks, interstitial ads, contextual data, ads on the search engines, classified or dynamic advertisement etc. The method can target specific audience tuning in from different types of locals to view a particular advertisement, the variations can be found as the most productive element of this method.
As we know from interactions with our own friends, they can be full of surprises. So one of the biggest mistakes you can make when creating a buyer persona is to constantly make assumptions. Actually put these personas to the test, hit the pavement, and start interviewing people and get some real data. After all, there’s that saying about assumptions making a donkey out of you and me.
Totally agree with your opinion on affiliate marketing. I’m in the same space myself and can tell you what it feels like to earn $1000 commissions while literally sitting on the sofa watching TV. It is absolutely mind-blowing. High-ticket commissions are what sets apart the affiliate marketers that scale their business up to six or even seven figures to the ones that only make a few thousand a month. I run a website based on digital marketing an entrepreneurship. You should check out our affiliate program – it is guaranteed to blow your mind. 🙂

A marketing plan can be adjusted at any point based on the results. If digital ads are performing better than expected, for example, the campaign budget within a campaign can be adjusted to fund the higher performing platform or the company can initiate a new budget. The challenge for marketing leaders is to ensure that every platform has sufficient time to show results. Digital marketing shows results in near real-time, whereas TV ads require rotation to realize any level of market penetration. In the traditional marketing mix model, a marketing plan would fall under the category of "promotion," which is one of the four Ps, a term coined by Neil Borden to describe the marketing mix of product, price, promotion, and place.


Use your personal words & experience with the product. Your own content, or photos & videos of yourself using the product are always the most effective. For example, many affiliate programs provide swipe copy to their affiliates which is pre-written emails, post material or social media posts. These can be helpful as a guide, but they often scream swipe copy, aren’t written in your voice (the one your readers know!) and if a lot of affiliates are using it, are overdone.
In developing a consensus definition of Social Marketing iSMA, ESMA and AASMworking group acknowledged the dynamic and contested nature of elements of Social Marketing theory and practice as a strength and manifestation of the sophisticated nature of the Social Marketing field. In developing a consensus definition the intention was not to close down the helpful and inevitable on-going debate about the nature and focus of Social Marketing. The aim was to help build a common narrative that could be used by the supporting associations to promote Social Marketing as a valuable core component of social programmes aimed at improving the human condition.  

Another challenge is the sheer scope and scale of digital marketing. There are so many great digital marketing techniques ranging from search, social and email marketing to improve the digital experience of your website. Our article, What is digital marketing? shows how by using our RACE planning framework you can define a more manageable number of digital marketing activities which cover the full customer journey. Within each digital marketing technique, there are lots of detailed tactics that are important to success, so they need to be evaluated and prioritized, for example from dynamic content for email automation, website personalization to programmatic, retargeting and skyscraper content for organic search.


Social marketing can be confused with commercial marketing. A commercial marketer may only seek to influence a buyer to purchase a product. Social marketers have more difficult goals. They want to make potentially difficult and long-term behavior changes in target populations, which may or may not involve purchasing a product. For example, reducing cigarette smoking or encouraging use of condoms have difficult challenges to overcome that go beyond purchasing decisions.
One of your primary goals in conducting research is to set focus areas, which are the discipline in your plan, says Albritton. "It's easy to fragment your efforts without discipline," she says. "So set a clear definition for the type of customers you want." At this point you should tackle your priority geography and begin focusing on the product and service offering you do best.
This is the standard affiliate marketing structure. In this program, the merchant pays the affiliate a percentage of the sale price of the product after the consumer purchases the product as a result of the affiliate’s marketing strategies. In other words, the affiliate must actually get the investor to invest in the product before they are compensated.
Okay, if you're still with me, fantastic. You're one of the few that doesn't mind wading through a little bit of hopeless murkiness to reemerge on the shores of hope. But before we jump too far ahead, it's important to understand what online marketing is and what it isn't. That definition provides a core understanding of what it takes to peddle anything on the web, whether it's a product, service or information.

The first component of Google's trust has to do with age. Age is more than a number. But it's not just the age when you first registered your website. The indexed age has to do with two factors: i) the date that Google originally found your website, and; ii) what happened between the time that Google found your website and the present moment in time.


This campaign was created by the New York City-based nonprofit organization Partnership for a Drug-Free America, known today as Partnership at Drugfree.org. The spot has been copied, quoted, and spoofed countless times since, and still lives on today as one of the most memorable and effective examples of social marketing—a specialized form of advertising that aims not to sell products, but to change the world.
The next milestone in the evolution of social marketing was the publication of "Social Marketing: An Approach to Planned Social Change" in the Journal of Marketing by Philip Kotler and Gerald Zaltman.[31] Kotler and Zaltman coined the term 'social marketing' and defined it as "the design, implementation, and control of programs calculated to influence the acceptability of social ideas and involving considerations of product planning, pricing, communication, distribution, and marketing research." They conclude that "social marketing appears to represent a bridging mechanism which links the behavior scientist's knowledge of human behavior with the socially useful implementation of what that knowledge allows."
Ask for VIP (sometimes called “tiered”) commissions. Many affiliate programs have different commission levels. Usually the standard commission level is made public, but higher commissions are offered to higher performing affiliates. Sometimes you may be bumped up to “VIP affiliate” status by the advertiser, but most times you have to ask if there’s a higher tier and how you can get there.
Price can quite simply be the quantitative price the company’s customers must pay to acquire its product. However, thorough market plans will also consider other sacrifices a customer must make, such as travel time, shipping costs, or research time before they find the product. Customer perceived value is also a key consideration when it comes to price. Key decisions under this umbrella include price-setting, pricing strategies, discounts, accepted payment methods, and more.
Another step that can help set objectives is to perform a S.W.O.T. analysis, where you identify the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats facing your business. By conducting such an analysis, you should identify the key insights and strategic plans that will drive your business over the next one-to-five years. This includes understanding, your five Cs—the consumer, channel, company, competition, and climate—deeply enough that when you finish, you should understand your point of difference in the market and where your opportunities lie," Roberts says. This should inform how you set your objectives.
Before online marketing channels emerged, the cost to market products or services was often prohibitively expensive, and traditionally difficult to measure. Think of national television ad campaigns, which are measured through consumer focus groups to determine levels of brand awareness. These methods are also not well-suited to controlled experimentation. Today, anyone with an online business (as well as most offline businesses) can participate in online marketing by creating a website and building customer acquisition campaigns at little to no cost. Those marketing products and services also have the ability to experiment with optimization to fine-tune their campaigns’ efficiency and ROI.

To find the best internet marketing tools for small businesses, we began by talking to business owners themselves, as well as some of the professionals who advise them. Due to the highly strategic nature of marketing, however, none would speak on the record about the products they use or how they use them. Off the record, though, we did get some helpful details about their choice of internet marketing software, what features are most important, how they go about choosing a provider, what they like about their internet marketing software, and what they would change. It turns out that cost, scalability, ease of use and customization are the things they consider most important. Customer support and robust help desk performance also were key factors in their choices.
Retargeting is another way that we can close the conversion loop and capitalize on the traffic gained from the overall marketing campaign. Retargeting is a very powerful display advertising tool to keep your brand top of mind and keep them coming back. We track every single touch point up to the ultimate conversions and use that data to make actionable recommendations for further campaign optimization.
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Social Media Marketing: In an increasingly connected world where consumers expect the companies they do business with to engage with them, social media is an ideal way to interact with prospects and customers. The key to social media marketing success is focusing on the platforms where you're most likely to find your target market, whether it's Instagram, Twitter, LinkedIn, Facebook, or Pinterest. To make sure you're not wasting time with your social media efforts, develop a strategy and content plan, and research tools that will help make the posting easier, such as Hootsuite or Buffer.
The marketing mix is a combination of elements that influence customers to purchase a product. The marketing mix includes four main factors: Product, Price, Place, and Promotion. Product refers to either the tangible good that your business offers, or the intangible good, referring to services. Key decisions made under this umbrella are branding, product design, package and labeling details, warranties, and more.
The answer, at its basis, is largely what I convey in a great majority of my books about search engine optimization and online marketing. It all boils down to one simple concept: add tremendous amounts of value to the world. The more value you add, the more successful you become. Essentially, you have to do the most amount of work (initially at least) for the least return. Not the other way around.
Understand that whatever you're going to do, you'll need traffic. If you don't have any money at the outset, your hands will be tied no matter what anyone tells you. The truth is that you need to drive traffic to your offers if you want them to convert. These are what we call landing pages or squeeze pages. This is where you're coming into contact with the customers, either for the first time or after they get to know you a little bit better.
Finally, the last "P" is promotion. Because of its visibility, this element is often mistakenly thought of as comprising the whole of social marketing. However, as can be seen by the previous discussion, it is only one piece. Promotion consists of the integrated use of advertising, public relations, promotions, media advocacy, personal selling and entertainment vehicles. The focus is on creating and sustaining demand for the product. Public service announcements or paid ads are one way, but there are other methods such as coupons, media events, editorials, "Tupperware"-style parties or in-store displays. Research is crucial to determine the most effective and efficient vehicles to reach the target audience and increase demand. The primary research findings themselves can also be used to gain publicity for the program at media events and in news stories.
Search engines are a powerful channel for connecting with new audiences. Companies like Google and Bing look to connect their customers with the best user experience possible. Step one of a strong SEO strategy is to make sure that your website content and products are the best that they can be. Step 2 is to communicate that user experience information to search engines so that you rank in the right place. SEO is competitive and has a reputation of being a black art. Here’s how to get started the right way.
The HIV awareness and testing social marketing campaigns below illustrate common features of social marketing campaigns. In general, social marketing campaigns include a website to house all campaign messaging and materials, social media activity, videos, and more. Many of these campaigns offer free materials to download and some can be customized.
Internet Marketing Inc. is one of the fastest growing full service Internet marketing agencies in the country with offices in San Diego, and Las Vegas. We specialize in providing results driven integrated online marketing solutions for medium-sized and enterprise brands across the globe. Companies come to us because our team of well-respected industry experts has the talent and creativity to provide your business with a more sophisticated data-driven approach to digital marketing strategy. IMI works with some clients through IMI Ventures, and their first product is VitaCup.
Social marketing campaigns are those that borrow from commercial marketing techniques for the purpose of social engagement–influencing a target audience to change their social behaviours and to benefit society. Whether it’s related to the environment, public health, safety, or community development, marketing for good is a methodology for creating change.
Social marketing aimed at changing health behaviour encounters external and internal competition. Digital communications proffer countless unhealthy eating messages along with seductive lifestyle images associated with cigarette brands. Cable television, the web, and video games offer endless opportunities for comorbid behaviour. At the same time, product marketers add to the confusion by marketing “reduced risk” cigarettes or obscure benefits of foods (such as low salt content in foods high in saturated fat).
In February 2000, Amazon announced that it had been granted a patent[18] on components of an affiliate program. The patent application was submitted in June 1997, which predates most affiliate programs, but not PC Flowers & Gifts.com (October 1994), AutoWeb.com (October 1995), Kbkids.com/BrainPlay.com (January 1996), EPage (April 1996), and several others.[13]
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